A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection. A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it.
Biological Sciences < University of Chicago Catalog
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Evolution within a Lineage
No population genetics perspective have ever given genetic drift a central role by itself, but some have made genetic drift important in combination with another non-selective force. The shifting balance theory of Sewall Wright held that the combination of population structure and genetic drift was important. Motoo Kimura 's neutral theory of molecular evolution claims that most genetic differences within and between populations are caused by the combination of neutral mutations and genetic drift. The mathematical properties of genetic draft are different from those of genetic drift. In this example, one of the birds from population A immigrates to population B, which has fewer of the dominant alleles, and through mating incorporates its alleles into the other population.
Mitochondrial genetics[ edit ] Mitochondrial genetics concerns the diagnosis and management of mitochondrial disorders, which have a molecular basis but often result in biochemical abnormalities due to deficient energy production. There exists some overlap between medical genetic diagnostic laboratories and molecular pathology. Genetic counseling[ edit ] Genetic counseling is the process of providing information about genetic conditions, diagnostic testing, and risks in other family members, within the framework of nondirective counseling. Genetic counselors are non-physician members of the medical genetics team who specialize in family risk assessment and counseling of patients regarding genetic disorders.